Ergonomics in the most humanized design

2022-08-14
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Ergonomics in humanized design

-- Li Liangjun, Huang Zhaohui

[Key words] humanized design; Ergonomics; System; People; Machine; Environment

[Abstract] through the analysis of specific cases of humanized product design, this paper explains the ergonomic factors contained in humanized design, further expounds the working steps of ergonomics in product design, and points out that China's future product design must take creativity and innovation as the primary condition, comply with ergonomics, so that humanized design truly reflects respect and concern for people. At the same time, it is also the most cutting-edge trend and trend, the embodiment of a humanistic spirit, and the perfect and harmonious combination of people and products

a series of social and material factors, such as the development of society, the progress of technology, the renewal of products, the acceleration of the pace of life... Make people pay more attention to the evaluation of products in terms of "convenience", "comfort", "reliability", "value", "safety" and "efficiency" while enjoying material life, that is, the humanized design problems often mentioned in product design

the so-called humanized products are products that include ergonomics. As long as the products used by "people" should be considered in ergonomics, the shape of products is undoubtedly combined with ergonomics. We can describe them as: with psychology as the center and physiology as the radius, we can establish a harmonious relationship between people and things (products), maximize human potential, comprehensively and balanced use of human muscle energy, protect human health, and improve productivity. Only from the perspective of industrial design, from aerospace systems, urban planning, construction facilities, automatic chemical plants, mechanical equipment, means of transportation, to furniture, clothing, stationery, pots, cups, chopsticks and other "things" created by production and life, the "human factor" must be considered as an important condition in the design and manufacturing. If the product category is divided into professional products and general products, professional products will have more consideration in ergonomics, which focuses on the physiological level; General products, on the other hand, must take into account psychological issues, and need more designs that conform to aesthetics and trends, that is, they should focus on the needs of product humanization

then, how to evaluate whether a product conforms to the specifications in ergonomics? Taking sturlgart design center in Germany as an example, when selecting excellent products every year, the standards set in ergonomics are:

1) products and people 8 Whether the size, shape and force of the closed oil return valve body match

2) whether the product is convenient and easy to use

3) whether the danger of accidental injury and misuse during user operation is prevented

4) whether each operation unit is practical; Whether the components can be identified without doubt in terms of placement

5) whether the product is easy to clean, maintain and repair

in general, the third item above is often emphasized in design education. When consumers buy goods, they decide whether the purchase behavior is established or not based on the visual effect, shopping atmosphere and value of the product. However, as a good designer, they should be responsible for the effect and comfort of long-term use of the product, especially the prevention of injury and danger, which can not be ignored. Double space considerations can also be considered. For example, in the posture of operating the computer, under the current operating conditions, the operator often hangs his arm forward to operate the keyboard and mouse. The suspension of the arm forms the static fatigue of the shoulder and neck, which makes the operator have to lean his back against the back of the chair (the back posture, especially the rapid economic growth of developing countries such as China and India, will increase the forward extension of the suspended arm, thereby increasing the balance torque required by the shoulder and accelerating the fatigue of the shoulder and neck). When the operator leaves the back and the arm is suspended, all the weight needs to be borne by the spine, The result is either fatigue and pain in the back, or the psoas muscle gives up maintaining a straight sitting position and collapses, or the wrist is pressed against the edge of the table, causing carpal tunnel syndrome. Then, to solve such problems, designers must fully consider ergonomics by 2020

the so-called ergonomics is to study the structural and functional characteristics of the human body by using the research methods of anthropometry, human mechanics, labor physiology, labor psychology and other disciplines, and to provide the size, weight, body surface area, specific gravity, center of gravity of all parts of the human body, as well as the relationship and accessible range of all parts of the human body during activities; It also provides human body functional characteristic parameters such as the output range, activity range, action speed, action frequency, center of gravity change and habits during action of various parts of the human body, and analyzes the functional characteristics of human visual, auditory, tactile and skin sensory organs; Analyze the physiological changes, energy consumption, fatigue mechanism and the adaptability of people to various labor loads; This paper discusses the factors that affect people's psychological state at work and the impact of psychological factors on work efficiency

ergonomic factors are often one of the ways for enterprises to improve their competitiveness. If we say that "humanized product" is a product design integrated with "people", then "ergonomic factor" is a factor that must be considered when designing the human-machine interface of industrial products. Under the impact of China's imminent accession to the WTO, China's manufacturing industry is all ready to maintain its advantage in the competition. Michael Porter, a management master, once said that there are two ways for enterprises to have competitive advantages: one is to expand production scale and move towards economies of scale, so as to have cost advantages; The other is to create the added value of enterprises or products and create the psychology of consumers. Nowadays, with the gradual improvement of products and quality, and consumers' higher and higher requirements for commodity quality, all product manufacturers strive to make breakthroughs, hoping to win by surprise and move the hearts of consumers. Take the new requirements of "health" Ergonomics put forward in the world today as an example, that is to use some auxiliary products that consider human-machine factors, such as electric lumbar support, ultraviolet barrier (UV, cut), etc. to improve the humanization level of products, so as to create advantages that other brands cannot imitate, and win the attention of consumers

what kind of products need ergonomics? How to behave in design to become a ergonomic product? The industrial designer pointed out that as for the relevant parts and equipment of the computer, such as keyboard, mouse and other input devices, because the user may use them for a long time to engage in work or entertainment, the contact time is long, and they may also be very invested in using them. Therefore, ergonomics has become one of the most important conditions in design

the remarkable feature of ergonomics is that on the basis of carefully studying the characteristics of the three elements of human, machine and environment, it does not simply focus on the excellence of individual elements, but takes the people who use "things" and the designed "things" and the environment where people and "things" coexist as a system to study. In ergonomics, this system is called "man machine environment" system. In this system, the interaction and interdependence among human, machine and environment determine the overall performance of the system. The human-machine system design theory of this discipline is to scientifically use the organic connection between the three elements to seek the best parameters of the system

the general method of system design is usually to analyze and study the impact of human, machine and environment on the overall performance of the system on the premise of clarifying the overall requirements of the system, such as how to divide the functions of human and machine in the system; How to cooperate; How the environment adapts to people; How does the machine affect the environment and other issues? Through continuous revision and improvement of the structure of the three elements, we can finally ensure the realization of the optimal combination scheme of the system. This is a new idea of ergonomics for industrial design, and provides a unique design method and relevant theoretical basis

as part of a holographic system, a product includes all the information in our commodity society. A well-designed product must be the product of the ingenious integration and balance of human, environmental, economic, technological, cultural and other factors. The motivation to start a product design may come from various aspects, some to improve functions, some to reduce costs, some to change the appearance and strengthen the "counter effect" to attract buyers. More often, the above aspects are combined. Therefore, the requirements for designers may come from various angles, such as function, technology, cost, user preferences, etc. The key points of different product design are also very different. The design of thermos bottle obviously considers more man-machine problems than that of perfume bottle; Take the computer game remote sensor designed by Zhaoji design as an example. At first sight, this product seems to be out of line with ergonomics, but in actual use, it fits well and has good controllability. Moreover, the appearance of the remote sensor is quite cool. Playing air combat games with this joystick has the taste of controlling fighter planes. Compared with other similar products in the market, even if the price is much higher than that of ordinary products, it is also very popular, which shows its charm. However, there is also such a product, which is popular in the market because of its pleasing appearance and low cost, but the disadvantage is that the product is light. Therefore, it is convenient to operate with one hand, but it has to be used with both hands. This is the inadequacy of this product in ergonomics; However, considering the cost, selling price and market factors, manufacturers still launch such products. For professional products, for example, hair dryers used by hairdressers and trimmers used by weeders, we must not underestimate the physiological considerations of ergonomics. However, a good product design can cover shape and human-machine factors, and the shape of the product can also have the opportunity to play human-machine engineering. In terms of the easy-to-use mouse ball designed by team for Microsoft, this mouse is specially designed for children to experience the computer. Before the plan is decided, the grasping method of children is studied. The yellow and white mouse ball makes children more interesting and functional when learning computers. The product has broken away from the shackles of product modeling. In addition to making it better to use, it also gives the product new meaning and imagination

in addition to general consumer goods, products specially designed for special groups also have more considerations in ergonomics. For example, the porcelain sets used by the disabled are designed to be tableware made for the disabled, and people will not directly see that they are made for the disabled. Therefore, on the basis of full consideration of ergonomics, the designer specially deals with the concave and convex of the handle, so that the patient has a sense of psychological balance when holding it in his hand, which can be seen, touched, but not so conspicuous. In terms of medical equipment, sickbeds, medical chairs and other products have more than

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